# Chaining Proofs

Various parts of the CMZ13 construction make use of zero-knowledge proofs to have, e.g., the issuer prove to the client that the credential was issued with respect to the expected parameters, or the client prove to the issuer that their blinded attributes were well-formed encryptions.

This is a specific instance of a more general paradigm: the use of zero-knowledge proofs to be transformed from a setting with possibly-malicious participants, who may not behove correctly, to a setting with honest-but-curious participants, who perform the protocol steps correctly, but might try to learn extra information.

To do this, as each participant performs their protocol step, they also construct a zero-knowledge proof that they performed their step correctly, then sends that proof along with the protocol message to their counterparty, who can use it to check that the message was correctly constructed. The counterparty can then produce a proof that they performed their step correctly, and so on.

The CMZ13 proofs used by Danake are instantiated using Merlin to perform the Fiat-Shamir transformation, modeling transcript using the duplex sponge construction. One emergent property of this design, as explained in the Merlin blog post, is that because the prover and verifier perform identical transcript operations, they can interactively compose intermediate proofs of correctness of each step into proofs of correctness of the entire protocol, without requiring any implementation changes to the proving functions.

This works as follows. Both counterparties (in this case, the client and issuer) maintain their own transcript states. When one party proves that they performed their step correctly, they mutate the state of their transcript away from the state of their counterparty’s transcript. But when their counterparty verifies the proof, the counterparty’s transcript state is mutated in the same way, bringing the two parties’ transcripts back into sync. Now the roles reverse, with the next proving phase mutating the transcript again, and the counterparty’s verification synchronizing the transcripts.

Notice that the proof of each step is a noninteractive proof, but because they’re made on the same transcript, they’re composed with all of the proofs from all prior steps, forming a chain of verifications of the entire protocol.